Chelsea v Spurs: Terry and Cahill start

first_imgFit-again defenders John Terry and Gary Cahill return to the Chelsea side for the derby against Tottenham at Stamford Bridge.Nemanja Matic partners John Mikel Obi in midfield, with Cesc Fabregas in the number 10 role. Eden Hazard is among the substitutes, while keeper Asmir Begovic again deputises for the suspended Thibaut Courtois.Tottenham, who must win in order to keep their slim title hopes alive, are without the suspended Dele Alli.But Eric Dier, who suffered concussion against West Brom, has been passed fit to start for the visitors.Chelsea: Begovic; Ivanovic, Cahill, Terry, Azpilicueta; Mikel, Matic; Willian, Fabregas, Pedro; Costa.Subs: Amelia, Baba, Loftus-Cheek, Kenedy, Oscar, Hazard, Traore.Tottenham: Lloris, Walker, Alderweireld, Vertonghen, Rose; Dier, Dembele; Lamela, Eriksen, Son; KaneSubs: Vorm, Davies, Wimmer, Carroll, Chadli, Mason, Clinton.Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebooklast_img read more

Introducing the Stretch & Squish Theory of Evolution

first_imgEvolution is too slow if theorists rely on single point mutations, say two biologists from U. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, who published their ideas in PNAS1 (see summary on EurekAlert).  Instead, evolution proceeds by rapidly distorting, stretching and squishing what is already there, they claim.    They claim that even Darwin knew that evolution was fast: “In an observation that has evolved into the modern theory of punctuated equilibrium, Darwin inferred from the fossil record that evolution frequently occurs in rapid bursts.”  In an effort to find a molecular basis for speeding up evolution to make rapid changes possible, they examined genetic sequences called tandem repeats from the blood of different breeds of dogs. Most scientists agree that over very long periods of time, mutations in the genetic code are responsible for driving evolutionary changes in species.  One widely accepted hypothesis is that random, so-called single-point mutations – a change from one letter to another among the billions of letters contained in the code – minutely but inexorably change an organism’s appearance.    UT Southwestern scientists, however, believe the single-point mutation process is much too slow and happens much too infrequently to account for the rapid rise of new species found in the fossil record, or for the rapid evolutionary changes occurring in species such as the domestic dog, whose various breeds have evolved relatively quickly from a not-too-distant common ancestor.Mutations in tandem repeat sequences apparently occur 100,000 times as often as point mutations, and produce noticeable changes in appearance quickly, they claim.  Dr. John Fondon explains:“I was struck by the prevalence of very highly mutable tandem repeats in the coding regions of genes responsible for development,” he said.  “That’s when it occurred to me that this may be an important mechanism whereby our genomes are able to create lots of useful variations in genes that are important for our development, our shape and structure, and our overall appearance.  “Many of the shape difference that we see in evolution are not suddenly adding a wing or a leg.  They are distortions, the stretching or squishing of a body part.  Mutations in these repeat sequences are responsible for such incremental, quantitative changes.”In the case of humans, mutations in neurons might have distorted, stretched and squished our brains: “Humans rapidly evolved big brains, which helped them survive as well,” suggested the other researcher, Dr. Harold Garner.Update 12/22/2004: Elizabeth Pennisi in Science2 calls this the ”Ruff” Theory of Evolution.  She notes that not all agree with the hypothesis that tandem repeats drive the evolution dogsled:Sean Carroll from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, worries that Fondon and Garner overestimate the importance of tandem repeats in typical evolution, noting that dog owners have bypassed natural selection by breeding for physical characteristics without thought to how the resulting changes would impact a dog’s survival in the wild.  Intensive breeding may have prompted the rampant changes in tandem repeats, more so than would occur under natural conditions.  But David King, an evolutionary biologist at Southern Illinois University in Carbondale, argues that it doesn“t matter whether natural selection or artificial breeding is at work–the role of tandem repeats is now clearly important: “[Fondon and Garner] have shown that tandem repeats are effective for fine-tuning evolution.”1John W. Fondon and Harold R. Garner, “Molecular origins of rapid and continuous morphological evolution,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 10.1073/pnas.0408118101, published online 12/13/2004.2Elizabeth Pennisi, “A Ruff Theory of Evolution: Gene Stutters Drive Dog Shape,” Science, Vol 306, Issue 5705, 2172, 24 December 2004, [DOI: 10.1126/science.306.5705.2172].This evolutionary food for thought is fit for a King.  (Here, King; here, boy.)  How do you squish an arm into a wing, or stretch a fin into a leg?  This sounds like the silly putty theory of evolution.  An intelligent kid can purposefully make things out of silly putty, but the putty by itself is silly and has no goal in mind.  Put the silly putty into a random machine of moving parts and chaos results.    Other problems quickly evolve from this theory.  What if the top of the dog’s snout gets stretched by a tandem repeat mutation, but the bottom jaw does not?  The dog can’t eat.  What if the mutated dog can eat, but cannot find a mate with the same mutation?  And don’t these guys know that dog breeding is not evolution, but intelligent design?  How can David King, an evolutionary biologist, appear so ignorant of the difference between natural and artificial selection?  And how can he use evolution and fine-tuning in the same phrase?    For these and other reasons, this Silly Putty theory of evolution gets Stupid Evolution Quote of the Week.  Fondon and Garner’s final sentence in the paper makes tandem repeats responsible for all the beauty and variety of living things:How broadly this mode of evolutionary change is exploited in nature remains to be seen, but if the prevalence of repetitive elements within genes is any indicator, then mammals, insects, plants, and other genomes throughout the natural world may use this mechanism to achieve evolutionary agility.“Evolutionary agility” – now there is an equivocation for the record books.  How did a lizard learn to fly?  By evolutionary agility.  How did an ape learn to build spacecraft?  By evolutionary agility.  How did a dog learn to become a whale and dive deep into the ocean, navigating by sonar?  By evolutionary agility.  What an agile concept.    Papers like this diminish the prestige of the National Academy of Sciences.  Peer review is supposed to prevent dumb ideas from getting published.  If it were not for the desperation of the Darwin Party to keep sending new ideas up the flagpole to see if anyone salutes, they would have been forced to admit defeat long ago.  This entry’s only value is in pointing out that the old neo-Darwinian theory of natural selection, acting on point mutations, is inadequate to account for the rapid change found in the fossil record.  That is an admission that supports creation, not evolution.(Visited 70 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

PH para athletes rally for continuous support, recognition

first_imgDon’t miss out on the latest news and information. “My eyes were opened on how unfair the law is for Filipino athletes with disabilities. The Philippine Sports Commission (PSC) has already undergone a number of administrative changes, but it was always the same answer, that we are not part of the law. That made me believe and I understood that there is a need to level the structure for us disabled athletes,” she said in Filipino.Luckily, those problems from Dumapong-Ancheta’s time is longer an issue after the passing of Republic Act 9064, also known as the Athletes’ Incentives Act, for para athletes who compete in international tiffs.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSSEA Games: Biñan football stadium stands out in preparedness, completionSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“I’m glad that now, there’s some kind of appreciation and recognition for us para athletes,” said Dumapong-Ancheta, who was one of the para athletes who gave their testimonies in the First Philippine Para Sports Summit on Friday at Microtel by Wyndham on Quezon City.The inclusion of para athletes in the Athletics Incentives Act gave them one less to worry about, especially when it came to funding. What ‘missteps’? PPC-PHILSPADA president Mike Barredo recognizes the speakers, including Paralympic bronze medalists Josephine Medina and Adeline Dumapong-Ancheta. Photo by Randolph B. LeongsonLooking back, Adeline Dumapong-Ancheta says that the country has gone a long way when it comes to rewarding athletes with disabilities.When she won the bronze medal in the 2000 Sydney Olympics, the 44-year-old powerlifter shared that she had a rude awakening when the government had little to give for her success in the international stage.ADVERTISEMENT LeBron’s legacy assured but Jordan’s might glow brighter Lacson: SEA Games fund put in foundation like ‘Napoles case’ LATEST STORIES Cayetano dares Lacson, Drilon to take lie-detector test: Wala akong kinita sa SEA Games Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken 1 dead in Cavite blast, firecenter_img Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles02:46Senators rally support for Robredo; laud her for accepting anti-drug post00:50Trending Articles02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games WATCH: Firefighters rescue baby seal found in parking garage MOST READ World’s 50 Best Restaurants launches new drinking and dining guide “There’s still a lot of challenges that we have to surpass, but if we’ll look at the big things, we may not move forward. So we have to take everything step-by-step and we’re looking to continue in extending the paralympic movement here in the Philippines,” she said.“I just hope that in the next generations, the athletes that will come in after us will experience the recognition they rightfully deserve without asking.”Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next This allowed para athletes to give full attention to their trainings and the competitions as they continue to hoist the Philippine flag high and proud and inspire their compatriots back home.2016 Rio Paralympic bronze medalist Josephine Medina was one of those who have capitalized on this opportunity.“Before, I was using my hard earned money to participate in the different qualifying tournaments. But in 2016, the PWD athletes are already enjoying whole year round of allowances,” she said.“The other countries have their own coaches and staff, but we did it all alone there, attending the technical meetings and training for the games,” said Medina. “Having disabilities is not a hindrance, but a challenge in life, and in those competitions, we’re competing there by our lonesome. With that, the Philippines gained a higher respect from the other countries.”Dumapong-Ancheta, though, believes that the Philippine Paralympic Committee (PPC) and the Philippine Sports Association for the Differently Abled (PHILSPADA) have only scratched the surface when it comes to advancements for athletes with disabilities.ADVERTISEMENT Heart Evangelista admits she’s pregnant… with chicken View commentslast_img read more